Conceptualization of the Human-Machine Symbiosis – A Literature Review

Publication Type:

Conference Paper


Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Volume 3, p.289–298 (2020)




The vision of a symbiotic partnership between humans and machines has existed since the 1960s. With this paper we provide the first conceptualization of the human-machine symbiosis (HMS) and make three important contributions: we present the fundamentals of HMS by focusing on objectives, requirements, and boundaries; we propose a framework for the design of HMS; and we review HMS research and, specifically, what the literature says with respect to whether HMS has already been achieved.